Acne is a very common skin condition caused by over active sebaceous glands producing oils that often get trapped within skin. This gets colonized by skin bacteria causing an inflammation.

There are different types of acne and different categories of severity. At Santi we are well-placed to deal with the different types of acne using gentle treatment solutions or medical options.


Acne Vulgaris

The formation of comedones, papules, pustules, nodules and cysts are a result of an onstruction of the pilosebaceous unit (hair follicle and it’s sebaceous gland).

Usually affecting teenagers, treatment options are based on the severity of the condition but involve topical creams to reduce sebum production and normalise skin keratinization.


4 major factors are at play:

  • Excess sebum production

  • Follicular plugging with sebum and keratinocytes

  • Colonization of follicles by Propionibacterium acnes (a normal human anaerobe)

  • Release of multiple inflammatory mediators

Acne can be classified as

  • Noninflammatory: Characterized by comedones

  • Inflammatory: Characterized by papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts


Common triggers are:

  • Puberty

During puberty, surges in androgen hormone stimulate sebum production and hyperproliferation of keratinocytes.

Other triggers include

  • Hormonal changes that occur with pregnancy or the menstrual cycle

  • Occlusive cosmetics, cleansers, lotions, and clothing

  • High humidity and sweating

There are some associations between acne and diet with some studies suggesting a possible association with milk products and high-glycemic diets (sugars). Acne may abate in summer months because of sunlight’s anti-inflammatory effects.

Santi London, 33 Thurloe Street, London SW7 2LQ Appointments: 0207 5847000

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