Increasingly popular, PRP (or Platelet Rich Plasma) treatments introduce your own blood product back into your skin or scalp to kickstart cell growth, promote healing and reduce inflammation.

One advantage of PRP is the security of using your body’s own cells – PRP treatments will never induce an allergic or adverse reaction, limiting the chance of side-effects and downtime.


£500 and £750 with HA

PRP skin treatments have been nicknamed ‘vampire facials’ – but don’t be put off by the spin. The powerful anti-ageing effect of the PRP facial is attributed to an increased rate of cell production, mimicking the behaviour of young skin.
At the start of the procedure blood is drawn and put through a centrifuge to extract the PRP – which is then applied to the skin, with or without micro-needling. PRP is high in growth factors which initiate collagen synthesis and cell turnover – minimising pores and lines and improving texture.

What is PRP?

PRP stands for Platelet-rich Plasma, a treatment used in aesthetics to promote skin and hair health. It is obtained from a patient’s own blood and contains a high concentration of platelets, which are known to release growth factors that stimulate tissue healing and regeneration. In aesthetics, PRP is commonly used for skin rejuvenation, hair restoration, and wound healing. The procedure involves injecting the patient’s PRP into the treatment area to promote cell growth and improve the overall appearance of the skin or hair.

What does PRP involve?


PRP, or Platelet-rich Plasma, is a treatment used in aesthetics and medical procedures to promote tissue healing and regeneration. The procedure typically involves the following steps:


1. Blood draw: A small sample of the patient’s blood is drawn, usually from the arm.


2. Processing: The blood sample is placed in a centrifuge to separate the platelets from the red and white blood cells.


3. Preparation of PRP: The platelet-rich portion of the blood is collected and prepared for injection.


4. Injection: The PRP is then injected into the treatment area using a fine needle.


5. Aftercare: After the procedure, the patient may experience some discomfort, swelling, or redness, but these symptoms typically resolve on their own within a few days.


The length of the procedure and the number of injections required can vary, depending on the patient’s individual needs and the treatment area. In aesthetics, PRP is commonly used for skin rejuvenation, hair restoration, and wound healing. The number of treatments required for optimal results can vary, but most patients require several sessions spaced several weeks apart.


The Science Behind PRP: How Platelets Can Enhance Skin Regeneration and Healing


Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy is a regenerative treatment that has gained popularity in recent years for its ability to enhance skin regeneration and healing. As a scientist, I would like to explain the science behind PRP and how it works to promote skin regeneration and healing.


PRP is a treatment that involves the use of the patient’s own blood to extract platelets, which are rich in growth factors that can stimulate tissue regeneration and repair. The process begins with a blood draw from the patient, which is then processed in a centrifuge to separate the platelet-rich plasma from the rest of the blood components.


Once the PRP is extracted, it is then injected back into the patient’s skin, where the growth factors can promote the regeneration of tissues and skin cells. The growth factors in PRP work by binding to specific receptors on the surface of cells, which triggers a cascade of cellular events that lead to the stimulation of tissue regeneration and repair.


One of the primary growth factors found in PRP is called platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), which plays a critical role in the process of wound healing. PDGF works by binding to specific receptors on the surface of cells, which triggers the migration and proliferation of cells involved in the healing process. PDGF also stimulates the production of collagen, which is essential for maintaining skin elasticity and firmness.



Another important growth factor found in PRP is transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), which plays a critical role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. TGF-β stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of cells involved in the regeneration of tissues, which is essential for repairing damaged skin cells.


Other growth factors found in PRP include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF). VEGF plays a critical role in angiogenesis, which is the process of forming new blood vessels. EGF stimulates the proliferation of skin cells, which is essential for maintaining healthy skin. IGF plays a critical role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, which is essential for repairing damaged tissues.


PRP therapy is a regenerative treatment that utilizes the patient’s own blood to extract growth factors that can stimulate tissue regeneration and repair. The growth factors found in PRP, such as PDGF, TGF-β, VEGF, EGF, and IGF, work by binding to specific receptors on the surface of cells, which triggers a cascade of cellular events that lead to the stimulation of tissue regeneration and repair. By understanding the science behind PRP, we can better appreciate its potential for enhancing skin regeneration and healing.

What to Expect During a PRP Treatment: A Step-by-Step Guide


Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy is a regenerative treatment that utilizes the patient’s own blood to extract platelets, which are rich in growth factors that can promote tissue regeneration and healing. If you are considering PRP therapy, it is important to know what to expect during the treatment. In this article, we will provide a step-by-step guide to help you prepare for your PRP treatment.


Step 1: Consultation with a Medical Professional

The first step in the PRP treatment process is to consult our medical team who specializes in this treatment. During the consultation, the medical professional will ask you about your medical history, current medications, and any allergies you may have. They will also examine the area to be treated and determine whether PRP therapy is a suitable treatment option for you.


Step 2: Blood Draw

Once you have been cleared for PRP therapy, the medical professional will draw a small amount of your blood, usually from your arm. The blood will then be placed in a centrifuge, which separates the platelet-rich plasma from the rest of the blood components.


Step 3: Preparation of PRP

After the blood has been processed in the centrifuge, the platelet-rich plasma is extracted and prepared for injection. The medical professional may add an activating agent to the PRP to enhance its regenerative properties.


Step 4: Local Anesthesia

In some cases, the medical professional may administer a local anesthetic to numb the area to be treated. This can help minimize any discomfort or pain during the injection process.


Step 5: PRP Injection

Once the area has been prepared, the medical professional will inject the PRP into the treatment area. The injection process usually takes only a few minutes, and the amount of PRP injected will depend on the specific treatment area and the severity of the condition being treated.


Step 6: Aftercare Instructions

After the PRP injection, the medical professional will provide you with aftercare instructions. This may include avoiding certain activities or medications, applying ice to the treatment area, and keeping the treatment area clean and dry. You may also be advised to avoid exposing the treatment area to the sun or heat for a certain period of time.


Step 7: Follow-up Visit

Depending on the specific treatment area and the severity of the condition being treated, you may be advised to schedule a follow-up visit with the medical professional to monitor your progress and assess the effectiveness of the treatment.

PRP therapy is a safe and effective regenerative treatment that can promote tissue regeneration and healing. By following these steps, you can prepare yourself for what to expect during a PRP treatment and ensure that you are getting the most out of your treatment. 

An Interview with Tariq Karim

What are your thoughts on the efficacy of polynucleotides?


Polynucleotides, which include DNA and RNA, are fundamental to biological processes. They serve as the repositories of genetic information in living organisms (DNA) and play a critical role in protein synthesis (RNA). The efficacy of polynucleotides in these roles is indisputable, as they are the basis of life as we understand it.

In a broader context, the application of polynucleotides has expanded significantly with advancements in biotechnology and genetic engineering. For instance, RNA-based therapies, like mRNA vaccines, have demonstrated their efficacy, especially in the rapid development of vaccines for COVID-19. These applications leverage the natural roles of polynucleotides in the body, proving them to be powerful tools in medicine and biotechnology.

Furthermore, DNA-based technologies, such as CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, show the potential of polynucleotides in genome editing. This has vast implications for treating genetic diseases, improving crop yields, and even in ecological management.

However, the efficacy of polynucleotides in these advanced applications depends on many factors, including delivery methods, stability, and the body’s response to these molecules. In therapeutic settings, challenges like immune reactions or off-target effects are significant considerations. Therefore, while the natural roles of polynucleotides are highly efficient and well-tuned through evolution, their efficacy in medical and technological applications is an area of ongoing research and development.


…and what about in aesthetics?


In the field of aesthetics, particularly cosmetic and dermatological applications, polynucleotides are gaining attention for their benefits in skin rejuvenation and repair. These molecules, often used in the form of polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) or other related compounds, are believed to stimulate skin healing and regeneration, which can be beneficial in aesthetic treatments.

Skin Rejuvenation and Anti-Aging

Polynucleotides are thought to promote skin hydration, improve elasticity, and reduce wrinkles. They may stimulate fibroblast activity, which is essential for collagen production. This can lead to improved skin texture and reduced signs of aging.

Wound Healing

Their potential to accelerate tissue repair and promote cell growth can be beneficial in treating scars or after aesthetic procedures like laser treatments, where accelerated skin recovery is desired.

Safety and Tolerance

Generally, these treatments are considered safe and well-tolerated, but as with any cosmetic procedure, there can be risks or side effects depending on individual reactions and the quality of the products used.

Research and Efficacy

While the use of polynucleotides in aesthetics shows promise, it’s important to note that this is a relatively new area of application. More extensive clinical research is needed to fully understand their efficacy, optimal formulations, and long-term effects.

Overall, polynucleotides represent an interesting development in aesthetic medicine, potentially offering a scientific approach to skin care and rejuvenation.


…and how does polynucleotides differ from PRP?


Polynucleotides and Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) are both used in aesthetic and medical treatments, but they are fundamentally different in composition, extraction, and mechanism of action.


Polynucleotides: These are long chains of nucleotides, which are the basic structural units of DNA and RNA. In aesthetic treatments, they are usually derived from salmon DNA or other similar sources. They are known for their hydrating, regenerative, and anti-inflammatory properties.


This is a concentrate of platelet-rich plasma protein derived from whole blood. It is centrifuged to separate the plasma and platelet portion from the rest of the blood components. PRP is rich in growth factors and cytokines that are believed to stimulate healing and tissue regeneration.

Source and Extraction


These are typically sourced from biological materials, such as salmon DNA, and are then processed and purified for medical or cosmetic use.


It is autologous, meaning it is derived from the patient’s own blood. This involves drawing a blood sample from the patient, which is then centrifuged to separate the PRP.

Mechanism of Action


They are believed to work by stimulating skin hydration, promoting collagen synthesis, and aiding in tissue repair and regeneration. This makes them useful in anti-aging treatments and skin rejuvenation.


The growth factors and cytokines in PRP help in accelerating the healing process, promoting cell growth, and repairing tissue. It’s used in various medical and cosmetic procedures, including injury recovery, hair regrowth, and skin rejuvenation.



Commonly used in skin rejuvenation treatments, anti-aging procedures, and in some cases, for wound healing.


Broadly used in orthopedics, dentistry, cosmetic procedures like facial rejuvenation, and hair loss treatments.

Safety and Efficacy

Both treatments are generally considered safe, but efficacy can vary. PRP, being autologous, has a lower risk of allergic reactions. Polynucleotides, while usually well-tolerated, may carry a risk of reaction depending on the source and individual sensitivities.

While both polynucleotides and PRP are used in regenerative medicine and aesthetics, they differ significantly in their source, preparation, and biological action. Their use depends on the specific treatment goals and individual patient considerations.


..can you elaborate on the biological action of both polynucleotides and prp?


Let’s delve deeper into the biological action of both polynucleotides and Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) to understand how they function at a cellular and molecular level.


Cellular Stimulation and Repair

Polynucleotides have been shown to stimulate the activity of fibroblasts, which are cells crucial for collagen synthesis and tissue repair. This action helps in improving skin elasticity and reducing wrinkles.

Hydration and Protection

They enhance skin hydration by attracting and binding water molecules, thereby improving skin moisture and texture. Additionally, polynucleotides can form a protective layer on the skin, helping to shield it from environmental damage.

Wound Healing and Anti-inflammatory Properties

These molecules may promote the healing process by stimulating angiogenesis (formation of new blood vessels) and the regeneration of skin tissue. Their anti-inflammatory properties also help in reducing skin inflammation and redness.

DNA Repair Mechanisms

Some studies suggest that polynucleotides may assist in the repair of damaged DNA in skin cells, although this area needs further research for a more comprehensive understanding.

Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP)

Release of Growth Factors

PRP is concentrated with platelets, which, upon activation, release a variety of growth factors like Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), Transforming Growth Factor (TGF), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), and others. These factors play crucial roles in the healing and regeneration process.

Tissue Regeneration and Healing

The growth factors in PRP stimulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue regeneration. This accelerates the healing process in injured or damaged tissues, making PRP a popular choice in sports medicine, wound healing, and cosmetic procedures.

Angiogenesis and Increased Blood Flow

PRP can promote angiogenesis, leading to increased blood flow and improved nutrient delivery to tissues. This is particularly beneficial in wound healing and in treatments aimed at skin rejuvenation.

Anti-Inflammatory Effects

The growth factors in PRP also have anti-inflammatory properties, which can reduce swelling and promote faster recovery of injured or treated areas.

Stimulation of Collagen Production

In cosmetic applications, the growth factors in PRP can stimulate collagen production, which is essential for maintaining skin firmness and elasticity, thereby contributing to anti-aging effects.


Both polynucleotides and PRP function by promoting healing, regeneration, and rejuvenation at a cellular level, though they do so through different mechanisms. Polynucleotides primarily act by improving hydration, protecting skin, and stimulating repair, whereas PRP works by releasing growth factors that directly influence cell growth, angiogenesis, and inflammation control. These mechanisms are central to their use in therapeutic and aesthetic applications.


…whats the difference in the biological processes that promote tissue repair?


The biological processes promoting tissue repair in treatments involving polynucleotides and Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) are distinct due to their different components and mechanisms of action. Let’s break down the key differences:


Stimulation of Fibroblasts

Polynucleotides stimulate fibroblasts, the cells responsible for producing collagen, elastin, and other extracellular matrix components. This results in improved skin structure and elasticity.

Hydration and Protective Layer

They enhance skin hydration by attracting water molecules. This hydration is crucial for healthy cell function and tissue repair. Additionally, they may form a protective layer to shield skin cells from environmental damage.

Anti-Inflammatory Action

Polynucleotides have anti-inflammatory properties that can reduce redness and swelling, aiding in the healing process.


They may stimulate the formation of new blood vessels, which is crucial for bringing nutrients and oxygen to damaged tissues, thus facilitating repair.

DNA Repair

There is evidence to suggest that polynucleotides can assist in DNA repair mechanisms within cells, although this aspect requires more research for a fuller understanding.

Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP)

Release of Growth Factors

PRP is rich in growth factors like PDGF, TGF, and VEGF. These factors are critical in initiating and regulating various stages of the healing process, including cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation.

Collagen Production and Matrix Formation

The growth factors released from PRP stimulate the production of collagen and other matrix proteins, essential for tissue strength and integrity.

Angiogenesis and Improved Blood Supply

PRP promotes the formation of new blood vessels, enhancing blood flow to the damaged area, which is crucial for delivering nutrients and removing waste products.

Modulation of Inflammation

PRP can modulate the inflammatory response, which is a critical aspect of the initial phase of tissue repair. It helps in controlling excessive inflammation that can be detrimental to the healing process.

Recruitment of Stem Cells

Certain growth factors in PRP may attract stem cells to the site of injury, contributing to tissue regeneration and healing.


Source and Nature

Polynucleotides are synthetic or derived from natural sources and are not patient-specific. PRP is autologous, derived from the patient’s own blood.

Mechanism of Action

Polynucleotides act primarily through hydration, fibroblast stimulation, and potentially DNA repair. PRP’s action is predominantly driven by the release of growth factors that directly influence various aspects of the healing process.

Tissue Repair Approach

Polynucleotides offer a more indirect approach to tissue repair, mainly by creating favorable conditions for cell growth and repair. PRP, in contrast, provides a direct stimulus for repair and regeneration through growth factors.

Application Scope

The differences in mechanisms make these therapies suitable for varying conditions. Polynucleotides are often used for skin rejuvenation and hydration, while PRP is more widely used for its regenerative capabilities in various tissues, including skin, hair, and musculoskeletal injuries.

Understanding these differences is crucial for selecting the appropriate treatment modality in regenerative medicine and aesthetic procedures.


…so polynucleotides use DNA and RNA to promote tissue repair whilst PRP uses growth factors?


Yes, that’s a succinct way to describe the fundamental differences in how polynucleotides and Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) promote tissue repair:


These treatments use chains of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA.

Their mechanism for promoting tissue repair is not directly through DNA and RNA synthesis, but rather through stimulating cellular processes that lead to improved tissue health. This includes stimulating fibroblasts (which are crucial for collagen production), enhancing hydration, providing a protective layer for cells, and possibly assisting in DNA repair mechanisms.

The key here is that they create a conducive environment for cell growth and repair, which indirectly supports tissue repair and rejuvenation.

Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP)

PRP uses the patient’s own blood, processed to concentrate platelets.

When these platelets are activated, they release a variety of growth factors like Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), Transforming Growth Factor (TGF), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), and others.

These growth factors directly stimulate the healing process by promoting cell proliferation, tissue regeneration, angiogenesis (formation of new blood vessels), and modulating the inflammatory response.

PRP’s approach to tissue repair is more direct, using growth factors to actively signal and regulate the healing process.

In summary, polynucleotides aid tissue repair by enhancing the overall health and function of cells and the extracellular matrix, while PRP directly stimulates the repair and regeneration of tissue through the action of growth factors.

“Not Directly Through DNA and RNA Synthesis”:

When we think of DNA and RNA, we often associate them with genetic information storage and protein synthesis, respectively. However, in the context of polynucleotide treatments in aesthetic or therapeutic applications, the role of these polynucleotides isn’t to provide new genetic information or directly participate in protein synthesis.

Instead of being incorporated into a cell’s own DNA or RNA, these externally applied polynucleotides act through different mechanisms.

“Stimulating Cellular Processes”

Polynucleotides stimulate various cellular activities and responses. Here’s how:

Stimulating Fibroblasts

These cells are responsible for producing collagen and other components of the extracellular matrix, crucial for skin structure and wound healing. By stimulating fibroblasts, polynucleotides enhance the skin’s natural regeneration and repair capabilities.

Enhancing Cell Hydration

Polynucleotides can attract and retain water molecules, thereby improving the hydration of the cells. Well-hydrated cells function more effectively, are healthier, and are better able to contribute to tissue repair.

Anti-inflammatory Properties

They can help reduce inflammation in the tissue, which is a key component of the healing process. By mitigating inflammation, polynucleotides help create a more favourable environment for tissue repair.

Potential in DNA Repair Mechanisms

Some studies suggest that polynucleotides may assist in the cellular mechanisms that repair damaged DNA, although this effect is not fully understood and requires more research.

The tissue repair facilitated by polynucleotide treatments is primarily through enhancing and supporting the natural cellular processes that contribute to tissue health and repair, rather than by directly adding new genetic material or being involved in protein synthesis. This is a subtle but important distinction in understanding how these treatments work at a cellular level.


… but how do polynucleotides stimulate fibroblasts?


The stimulation of fibroblasts by polynucleotides involves a complex interaction at the cellular level, influenced by various signalling pathways and cellular responses. While the exact mechanisms are still an area of ongoing research, here are some key points on how polynucleotides may stimulate fibroblasts:


Activation of Cellular Receptors

Polynucleotides may bind to specific receptors on the surface of fibroblasts. This binding can activate cellular signalling pathways that lead to various cellular responses, including the stimulation of fibroblast activity.

Promotion of Growth Factor Secretion

These molecules can induce fibroblasts to secrete growth factors and cytokines. Growth factors like Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) and Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) are vital for fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis.

Enhancing Collagen Production

Fibroblasts are the primary cells responsible for collagen production in the skin. By stimulating these cells, polynucleotides indirectly promote the synthesis of collagen, which is essential for skin elasticity and strength, as well as for wound healing.

Improving Cellular Environment

Polynucleotides can enhance the extracellular environment, providing better conditions for fibroblast function. This might include improved hydration, which is crucial for optimal cell function.

Regulating Gene Expression

There is some evidence that polynucleotides can influence the expression of genes in fibroblasts that are related to cell growth, collagen synthesis, and tissue repair.

Anti-inflammatory Effects

By reducing inflammation, polynucleotides might contribute to an environment that is more conducive to fibroblast activity and less harmful to their function.

Oxidative Stress Reduction

They may also help in reducing oxidative stress in cells, which can otherwise hinder fibroblast function and contribute to aging and tissue damage.

Angiogenic Effects

Stimulating the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) can improve nutrient and oxygen

The overall consensus is that polynucleotides, through these various mechanisms, create a favourable environment that supports and stimulates the natural functions of fibroblasts, leading to improved skin health and repair.

Santi London, 33 Thurloe Street, London SW7 2LQ Appointments: 0207 5847000

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